Sloths have a dense coat on which insects, algae and fungi coexist in a symbiotic relationship. This complex ecosystem requires different levels of controls; however, most of these mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the bacterial communities inhabiting the hair of two- (Choloepus Hoffmanni) and three-toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths and evaluated their potential for producing antibiotic molecules capable of exerting control over the hair microbiota. The analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequence variants revealed that the communities in both host species are dominated by Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes. The most abundant genera were Brevibacterium, Kocuria/Rothia, Staphylococcus, Rubrobacter, Nesterenkonia and Janibacter. Furthermore, we isolated nine strains of Brevibacterium and Rothia capable of producing substances that inhibited the growth of common mammalian pathogens. The analysis of the biosynthetic gene clusters of these nine isolates suggests that the pathogen-inhibitory activity could be mediated by the presence of siderophores, terpenes, beta-lactones, Type III polyketide synthases, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides, non-alpha poly-amino acids like e-Polylysine, ectoine or non-ribosomal peptides. Our data suggest that Micrococcales that inhabit sloth hair could have a role in controlling microbial populations in that habitat, improving our understanding of this highly complex ecosystem.
|emi16082-sup-0001-AppendixS1.docxWord 2007 document , 23.2 KB||
Appendix S1. Supporting Information.
|emi16082-sup-0002-FigureS1.tifimage/tif, 26.7 KB||
Fig. S1. Diversity measures of the hair samples from Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni. The diversity measures (Shannon, Simpson and Observed Richness) were calculated using phyloseq. Figure shows A) diversity measures of all samples grouped by sample point. B) Diversity measures of all samples.
|emi16082-sup-0003-FigureS2.tifimage/tif, 876.3 KB||
Fig. S2. Taxonomic composition at the family level of prokaryotic community inhabiting the hair of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni. Relative abundance of bacterial and archaeal organisms at the family level. The ASV were taxonomically classified using SILVA reference database v138 (Quast et al., 2013) as described in ‘Experimental procedures’. Bradypus samples are identified as B1 to B13 and Choloepus samples are identified as C1-C15.
|emi16082-sup-0004-FigureS3.tifimage/tif, 5.7 MB||
Fig. S3. Isolates that present antimicrobial activity found in the hair of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni. Bacteria were grown on ISP2 agar for 1 week. All bacteria are classified either as Brevibacterium, Kocuria or Rothia according to its 16S rRNA sequence.
|emi16082-sup-0005-TableS1.xlsxExcel 2007 spreadsheet , 11.9 KB||
Table S1. Metadata of sloths sample on the sloth sanctuary.
|emi16082-sup-0006-TableS2.csvCSV document, 2.3 MB||
Table S2. DNA sequence and phylogenetic assignment of the most abundant ASVs detected in the hair samples using Illumina-based amplicon deep-sequencing.
Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
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