Widespread formation of intracellular calcium carbonates by the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis
Funding information: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Grant/Award Number: CE01-0005; Learning Planet Institute; and University Paris Cité grant Frontiers of Innovation in Research and Education; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, ATM Program, BIOCHEMIST grant; Sorbonne Université, Emergence Program, CaCO3 project
The formation of intracellular amorphous calcium carbonates (iACC) has been recently observed in a few cultured strains of Microcystis, a potentially toxic bloom-forming cyanobacterium found worldwide in freshwater ecosystems. If iACC-forming Microcystis are abundant within blooms, they may represent a significant amount of particulate Ca. Here, we investigate the significance of iACC biomineralization by Microcystis. First, the presence of iACC-forming Microcystis cells has been detected in several eutrophic lakes, indicating that this phenomenon occurs under environmental conditions. Second, some genotypic (presence/absence of ccyA, a marker gene of iACC biomineralization) and phenotypic (presence/absence of iACC) diversity have been detected within a collection of strains isolated from one single lake. This illustrates that this trait is frequent but also variable within Microcystis even at a single locality. Finally, one-third of publicly available genomes of Microcystis were shown to contain the ccyA gene, revealing a wide geographic and phylogenetic distribution within the genus. Overall, the present work shows that the formation of iACC by Microcystis is common under environmental conditions. While its biological function remains undetermined, this process should be further considered regarding the biology of Microcystis and implications on the Ca geochemical cycle in freshwater environments.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
Materials described in the manuscript will be freely available upon publication of the manuscript to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes. Genomes of the 26 PMC strains have been deposited in NCBI (BioProject ID: PRJNA888979). All other datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study (SEM/TEM) are available on the recherche.data.gouv.fr repository (doi: 10.57745/WGOJL7).
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